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Indonesia: Innovative Strategies for Tackling School Violence Issues W


Written by Saadia Haq (Author of The Human Lens)  and Eva Fatmawaty

Indonesia has seen substantial rise in school violence incidents and the government’s record of addressing this issue is debatable. The violence perpetuated within the premises of an educational institution has many root-causes. Overall, the parents, teachers, school authorities and friends have their share in influencing school violence.

Then bullying makes a huge factor where certain school going bullies try to dominate and tame other students resulting in minor to catastrophic results like last month’s girl child assault in religious class.

Every bully-child has a history within his own childhood growing years that influence his or her personality shaping into a bully. It is important to understand that a child’s first learning institution is “home” and primary teachers and role modes are “parents.” Also a father and mother are the first educators for their child at home. While becoming parents is natural relatively easier, good parenting skills are harder to learn and implement. Whatever children learn it’s a reflection of what they saw or heard from their primary teachers: i.e. parents.

The latest studies on School violence and research studies on child management have come up with mechanisms for discipline children by positive methods instead of the age old methodology of the using the rod. The “Positive Discipline” methodology is based in research on children’s healthy development and founded on child rights principles.

Positive Discipline
Positive Discipline

Positive discipline is not permissiveness nor is it about punishment. It is about long -term solutions that develop children’s own self-discipline and their life-long skills. Positive discipline is about teaching non-violence, empathy, self-respect, human rights and respect for others. It focuses on capacity building of parents and secondary role models of children i.e. teachers.

In Indonesia, adhering to child rights needs, the Positive Discipline programme was initiated in late 2012 and since then, teachers at 16 primary and junior high schools have participated in different training workshops. The approach has been done into partnership with UNICEF, Save The Children and Learn Without Fear Campaign, Plan International.

The program has also been introduced into the troublesome province of West Papua that has an appalling human rights atrocities and conflict record heavily censored by the Indonesian government.

At home, for parents this programme brings innovative mechanisms. How so? The Positive Discipline for parents includes:

  • It is an in-built mechanism as a universal program for the typical families facing typical challenges, rather than just focusing on “high-risk” families.
  • It is based in attachment, relationships and communication, rather than rewards and punishments.
  • It helps to build on parents’ strengths
  • It is encompassing all stages of childhood, from birth to adolescence.
  • It helps parents learn how to problem-solve across a wide range of situations, rather than prescribing “what to do when”.
  • It comes from a child rights perspective, so it focuses on enhancing mutual respect between parents and children.
  • It is originated as a culturally inclusive approach and mainstreamed as “parenting universals”.

In schools and classrooms, the students are under the supervision of their teachers. For the teachers, the Positive Discipline approach includes a variety of strategies:

  • It is s based on established pedagogical principles, as well as child rights principles.
  • It considers the long-term impact of the teaching relationship on children’s lives and attitudes toward learning.
  • It helps teachers learn how to provide effective mentorship within a safe learning environment.
  • It provides relevant information about children’s neurological, intellectual and social development from birth to adolescence.
  • It recognizes the importance of individual differences in children’s experiences, temperaments and information processing.
  • It focuses on problem-solving rather than rewards and punishment

Any form of violence has a very long-lasting and consequential effect on a child’s mind. And there is no doubt that parents and the teachers have a strong role and responsibility in guiding the children towards becoming positive persons and attain skills to behave in socially acceptable ways.

Through programs like “Positive Discipline” it is hoped that more and more parents and teachers will be enabled to guide children in many constructive ways that are counter strategies for the eradication of school violence from the society.  Indonesia has taken its initial steps that will help address the concerns of violence against children in a long run to come.

 

Sources:

  1. http://resourcecentre.savethechildren.se/sites/default/files/documents/4871.pdf

LEADER & TRUSTWORTHINESS


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Say: “O lord of all dominions, You give whom it pleases You the kingdom, and You take away the power from whosoever You will; You exalt whom You please and debase whom You will. All goodness is Yours (entirely). Indeed You have the power over all things. [3:26]

Four days ago, on October 20th , Indonesia had a new government, new president and new vice president. In this post, I want to say , “ my congratulation for their succeed became leaders in this big country.” The Indonesian citizen hope, this new government will govern and develop this country well, according their abilities. Indonesia is one of a big country that has various religion, ethnics, cultures, languages, mores, and various problems. Many people hope, the Indonesian leader can solve the problems in many parts, such as; poorness, fatuity, unemployment, corruption, nepotism, trafficking, women and children issues, school violence and  so on.

President of Indonesia, 2014-2019, Joko Widodo.
President of Indonesia, 2014-2019, Joko Widodo.

Truthfully, government is a SERVANT for their citizen, not a BIG BOSS. They should serve the people well, and more responsive to what people need entirely. Become a leader is not a chance for enrich himself, not a time for acting arbitrary, nor do treason to this country. Because, become a leader is trustworthiness from Allah basically.

Everyone is a leader. A leader for himself, right? But, here I’ll discuss about a leader widely especially related to government in Islamic country base on Islam. When I searched this topic (politic) in Qur’an, subhanallah there were so many surahs and verses that explain about leader, the characteristic of good leader, how to make decision and other thing.

If we read the verse about  the creation of Prophet Adam AS, we’ll find the main function and the human duty, as Allah said in surah al-Baqoroh verse 30.

Remember when your Lord said to the angels: “I have to place a trustee on the earth,” they said: “Will you place one there who would create disorder and shed blood, while we intone Your litanies and sanctify Your name?” And Allah said: “ I know what you do not know”

This verse explains that the main duty of human is becomes a leader in this earth , and the first leader in this earth was our Prophet Adam ‘Alaihi Salam.

            Discussing about government, it relates to deliberation, making decision.

O you who believe, obey Allah and the Prophet and those in authority among you; and if you are at variance over something, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you believe in Allah and the Last Day. This is good for you and the best of settlement. [4:59]

             There was a beautiful story of deliberation in Islam. It was about Khandaq battle. In that time, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) asked the opinion to his sahabas, how to against the enemies. When his opinion was different with Sahabas, he was not arrogant, he received the best strategic from his soldiers. In that story, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) used the idea from Salman Al-Farisi. Salman was to play an important role in the struggles of the growing Muslim state. At the battle of Khandaq, he proved to be an innovator in military strategic. He suggested digging a ditch or khandaq around Madina to keep the Quraysh army at bay. When Abu Supyan the leader of the Mekka saw the ditch, he said, “This strategy has not been employed by the Arabs before.”

We get the lesson from that story, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as a leader didn’t force his sahabas to receive his idea, but he offered the discussion to them, respected to their ideas, in taking good decision. We have no doubt about it. It was real example from Rasulullah SAW as the best leader in this earth and in hereafter.

Therms of choosing a leader base on Qur’an, for instance:

  • Choose a leader who has a good faith, [5:55-56]

Your only friends are Allah and His messenger, and those who believe and are steadfast in devotion, who pay the zakat and bow in homage (before Allah) [55] And those who take Allah and His prophet and the faithful as their friends are indeed men of Allah, who will surely be victorious. [56]

  • He shouldn’t be from unbelievers, [3:28]; [4:57]; [4:144]; [9:23]; [14:28-30]; [58:22]

Those who believe should not take unbelievers as their friends in preference to those who believe — and whoever does so should have no (expectations) of Allah – unless to safeguard yourselves against them. But Allah commands you to beware of Him, for to Allah you will journey in the end. [3:28]

  • Not a Jews or Christian, [5:57]; [2:120]

The Jews and Christians will never be pleased with you until you follow their way. Say: Allah’s guidance alone is true guidance;” for if you give in to their wishes after having received the (Book of) knowledge from Allah, then none will you have as friend or helper to save you. [2:120]

  • He shouldn’t be from Islam’s enemies, [60:1]

O YOU WHO BELIEVE, do not take My enemies and your enemies as friends. You show kindness to them, but they reject the true way that has come to you. They expelled the Prophet and you, for you believe in Allah your Lord. If you have come out to struggle in My cause having sought My acceptance, (do not be) friendly with them in secret. I know what you hide and what you disclose. Whoever of you does this will have gone astray from the right path.

From the verses above, we can take the conclusions that a leader is a trustworthiness from Allah, not from human’s power or his intelligence. Allah gives and takes whom the kingdom whosever He will. Surely, Allah has the power over all things. So, a leader shouldn’t be a betrayer for a fulfilling trust that he has received. Allah will ask about his leadership, indeed becomes a leader isn’t easy. He has a huge responsibility and he should holding responsible not only to his citizen, but also to his Creator, Allah The Almighty.

“We have sent down to you the Book containing the truth, in whose light you should judge among the people as Allah has shown you, and do not be a contender for deceivers.[4:105]

If someone does know the responsibility of a leader , I believe finding a President candidate will be so difficult. Please see again the terms    of choosing a leader according to Qur’an, and the verses above.

Do we remember what Caliph Abu Bakar spoke when he was chosen as a Caliph by Ummah? What about Caliph Umar bin Khattab and Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz? They felt so hard to receive a fulfilling trust from ummah and from Allah. We do know about their lives when they became caliphs. Caliph Abu Bakar gave all his wealth for Ummah, so did the other caliphs.

            After assuming the office of Caliphate Abu Bakr’s first address was as follow:

I have been given the authority over you, and I am not the best of you. If I do well, help me; and if I do wrong, set me right. Sincere regard for truth is loyalty and disregard for truth is treachery. The weak amongst you shall be strong with me until I have secured his rights, if God wills; and the strong amongst you shall be weak with me until I have wrested from him the rights of others, if God wills. Obey me so long as I obey God and His Messenger. But if I disobey God and His Messenger, you owe me no obedience. Arise for your prayer, God have mercy upon you.

Subhanallah, beautiful example of leader. And it was real! Not only folk tales. Please compare with our leaders today! So many people wishing for power (kingdom) with various means. It’s like the following verse;

We had offered the Trust (of divine responsibilities) to the heavens, the earth, the mountains, but they refrained from bearing the burden and were frightened of it; but man took it on himself. He is a faithless ignoramus. [33:72]

The last, I hope the new Indonesian government will manage this country well and support Islam completely, because they are muslims and muslim is the most population in it. May Allah bless them, and guide them to the right way always. Ameen.

Sources: